BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDINIG FOR MOTHER AND CHILD

Jelena Miolski

 

ABSTRACT

Breastfeeding is the best way to feed a child from the first six months until the end of the second year. The unbreakable bond during pregnancy between a mother and her child continues during the lactation process, providing numerous benefits for both the mother and the child.

Due to the effects of many hormones after childbirth, lactation offers numerous advantages for the mother. Oxytocin causes reduction of the uterus and bleeding, absence of menstruation, faster return of body weight, lower risk of cancer of the reproductive organs, and prevents the occurrence of osteoporosis and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Breastfeeding certainly ensures a better emotional bond with the child. Specificity in the composition of human milk provides the newborn with short-term and long-term protective effects. Thanks to human oligosaccharides, immunoglobulins, and polyunsaturated fatty acids that influence the composition of the microbiome of the newborn’s intestine, as well as the formation of its immune response, breastfed children suffer less from respiratory and digestive infections, food allergies, autoimmune diseases and have been proven to have a higher IQ.

Breastfeeding is the best form of feeding for mother and child. The specificity of the composition of human milk ensures optimal growth and development of the child and a healthier life for its mother.

 

KEYWORDS

breast milk, breastfeeding, benefits of breastfeeding, mother, oxytocin, human oligosaccharides, newborn
 

FULL TEXT:

PDF
 

REFERENCES

1.     ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition, Agostoni C, Braegger C, Decsi T, Kolacek S, Koletzko B, et al. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49(1):112-25. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e31819f1e05.

 

 

2.     Vogel JP, Oladapo OT, Manu A, Gülmezoglu AM, Bahl R. New WHO recommendations to improve the outcomes of preterm birth. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3(10):e589-90. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00183-7.

 

 

3.     Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):e827-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3552.

 

 

4.     Verduci E, Giannì ML, Vizzari G, Vizzuso S, Cerasani J, Mosca F, et al. The Triad Mother-Breast Milk-Infant as Predictor of Future Health: A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):486. doi: 10.3390/nu13020486.

 

 

5.     Del Ciampo LA, Del Ciampo IRL. Breastfeeding and the benefits of lactation for women’s health. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2018;40(6):354-9. English. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1657766.

 

 

6.     Vizzari G, Morniroli D, Alessandretti F, Galli V, Colombo L, Turolo S, et al. Comparative analysis of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in mother’s milk of term and preterm mothers. Nutrients. 2022;14(21):4595. doi: 10.3390/nu14214595.

 

 

7.     Matsunaga M, Kikusui T, Mogi K, Nagasawa M, Ooyama R, Myowa M. Breastfeeding dynamically changes endogenous oxytocin levels and emotion recognition in mothers. Biol Lett. 2020;16(6):20200139. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2020.0139.

 

 

8.     Hoekzema E, Barba-Müller E, Pozzobon C, Picado M, Lucco F, García-García D,  et al. Pregnancy leads to long-lasting changes in human brain structure. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20(2):287-96. doi: 10.1038/nn.4458.

 

 

9.     Tucker Z, O’Malley C. Mental health benefits of breastfeeding: a literature review. Cureus. 2022;14(9):e29199. doi: 10.7759/cureus.29199.

 

 

10.  Chowdhury R, Sinha B, Sankar MJ, Taneja S, Bhandari N, Rollins N, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr. 2015;104(467):96-113. doi: 10.1111/apa.13102.

 

 

11.  Moubareck CA. Human milk microbiota and oligosaccharides: a glimpse into benefits, diversity, and correlations. Nutrients. 2021;13(4):1123. doi: 10.3390/nu13041123.

 

 

12.  Lovelady C. Balancing exercise and food intake with lactation to promote post-partum weight loss. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70(2):181-4. doi: 10.1017/S002966511100005X.

 

 

13.  Sprenger N, Binia A, Austin S. Human milk oligosaccharides: factors affecting their composition and their physiological significance. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2019;90:43-56. doi: 10.1159/000490292.

 

 

14.  Dedrick S, Sundaresh B, Huang Q, Brady C, Yoo T, Cronin C, et al. The role of gut microbiota and environmental factors in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020;11:78. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00078.

 

 

15.  Insel R, Knip M. Prospects for primary prevention of type 1 diabetes by restoring a disappearing microbe. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018;19(8):1400-6. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12756.

 

 

16.  Halken S, Muraro A, de Silva D, Khaleva E, Angier E, Arasi S, et al. European academy of allergy and clinical immunology food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines group. EAACI guideline: Preventing the development of food allergy in infants and young children (2020 update). Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2021;32(5):843-58. doi: 10.1111/pai.13496.

 

 

17.  Fujimura T, Lum SZC, Nagata Y, Kawamoto S, Oyoshi MK. Influences of maternal factors over offspring allergies and the application for food allergy. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1933. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01933.

 

 

18.  Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW; COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION; SECTION ON ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY. The effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, hydrolyzed formulas, and timing of introduction of allergenic complementary foods. Pediatrics. 2019;143(4):e20190281. doi: 10.1542/peds.2019-0281.

 

 

19.  Nolan LS, Rimer JM, Good M. The role of human milk oligosaccharides and probiotics on the neonatal microbiome and risk of necrotizing enterocolitis: a narrative review. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3052. doi: 10.3390/nu12103052.

 

 

20.  Henriksson C, Boström AM, Wiklund IE. What effect does breastfeeding have on coeliac disease? A systematic review update. Evid Based Med. 2013;18(3):98-103. doi: 10.1136/eb-2012-100607.

 

 

21.  Cheshmeh S, Nachvak SM, Hojati N, Elahi N, Heidarzadeh-Esfahani N, Saber A. The effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding on the metabolic factors and the expression level of obesity and diabetes-predisposing genes in healthy infants. Physiol Rep. 2022;10(19):e15469. doi: 10.14814/phy2.15469.

 

 

22.  Dubois L, Feng C, Bédard B, Yu Y, Luo ZC, Marc I, et al. Breast-feeding, rapid growth in the first year of life and excess weight at the age of 2 years: the 3D Cohort Study. Public Health Nutr. 2022.7:1-11. doi: 10.1017/S1368980022000015.

 

 

23.  Liu F, Lv D, Wang L, Feng X, Zhang R, Liu W, et al. Breastfeeding and overweight/obesity among children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pediatr. 2022;22(1):347. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03394-z.

 

 

24.  Mantzorou M, Papandreou D, Vasios GK, Pavlidou E, Antasouras G, Psara E, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least four months is associated with a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity in mothers and their children after 2-5 years from delivery. Nutrients. 2022;14(17):3599. doi: 10.3390/nu14173599.

 

 

25.  Jedrychowski W, Perera F, Jankowski J, Butscher M, Mroz E, Flak E, et al. Effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the development of children’s cognitive function in the Krakow prospective birth cohort study. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(1):151-8. doi: 10.1007/s00431-011-1507-5.

 

 

26.  Wallenborn JT, Levine GA, Carreira Dos Santos A, Grisi S, Brentani A, Fink G. Breastfeeding, physical growth, and cognitive development. Pediatrics. 2021;147(5):e2020008029. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-008029.

 

 

27.  Isaacs EB, Fischl BR, Quinn BT, Chong WK, Gadian DG, Lucas A. Impact of breast milk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development. Pediatr Res. 2010;67(4):357-62. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181d026da.

 

REFBACKS

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Copyright (c) 2023 Jelena Miolski

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scroll to Top